The NRA Needs A Reform Movement?

BY Herschel Smith
3 years, 1 month ago

Discussing the same subject we did a few days ago (but coming to radically different conclusions), Sabastian remarks as follows.

While the figures involved in the hardliner (Knoxers in the past) versus pragmatist (Wayne’s faction) debate have changed, the essential debate is still with us.

NRA’s parasitic relationship with its PR firm isn’t anything new. The Knoxers railed against it too back in the day. I’ve never been comfortable with it either, but I’ve always had the choice of living with it as a member, or joining the hardliners. I am of the opinion that NRA taking a no-compromise, hardline stance will ultimately result in its irrelevance. Believing we can always win by saying ‘no’ louder is not a winning strategy when you’re working as a determined minority in a republican political system.

These days the issue is bump stocks and red flag laws. NRA largely surrendered on the bump stock issue to buy time to stop the bills that would have put semi-automatic firearms in legal jeopardy. They endorsed red flag laws provided they had sufficient due process (which none of them do). I believe both these moves are unpleasant necessities that reflect the reality of the political situation post-Vegas and post-Parkland. If you want to fight and die on bump stock hill, sorry, but we’re going to lose that fight. We also risk losing a large chunk of the current transferrable machine gun stock. You’re all aware of the debates, so I won’t rehash them.

That’s just bullshit.  The NRA didn’t “largely surrender” on bump stocks, it gave Trump the idea and cover for it.  They also endorsed red flag laws (ERPOs), and gave Trump the cover to say “take them first.”

Besides, the due process requirement is a red herring and everyone with two brain cells knows it.  Due process is for after a crime has been committed.  Threats are a crime, so you don’t need red flag laws to arrest someone who has threatened someone else.  The idea behind red flag laws is allegedly to prevent crime, or in other words, sit in the seat of the Almighty and predict behavior in the future.  I suspect that the real idea behind red flag laws will eventually become manifest, i.e., to remove firearms from people whom the FedGov doesn’t like.  Do you believe in the second amendment remedy for tyranny?  Presto.  Red flag your ass.

So you can reform the NRA until you heart is content, sir.  I won’t be a part of what I’ve noted is the best, most effective, most well-connected, well-financed gun control organization on earth and in history, having been involved in and supported the NFA, the GCA, the Hughes Amendment, the bump stock ban, and now red flag laws.

Seldom has it ever actually used its money and power to properly score votes, oppose gun control, marshal people and resources, and stand in the gap.  Can you imagine an NRA that actually used its wealth and power to oppose gun control instead of enrich the pockets of the powerful?

It’s hand-wringing to say that the NRA couldn’t have stopped this or that, if in fact history is no indication of its chances of success given that it has never actually tried.

And I’ll tag this post both NRA and gun control.  The two go together hand in glove.


  1. On April 24, 2019 at 7:06 am, H said:

    It’s telling that “Sebastian’s” first action beyond news reporting on this is to attack another faction of the RKBA community, and based on comments he’s got a lot of company in hating “hardliners” more than gun grabbers. A Leftist who only has guns in common with us, going so far as to accuse us raised in Gun Culture 1.0 types of racism by making a bigger fuss about the Federal government’s execution of religious dissidents at Waco than the smaller scale, over before we knew it, entirely local under a black mayor but otherwise comparable MOVE bombing in his back yard.

    As I commented on his blog, he wants a NRA like the current one with less graft, on Red Flag laws he and his supporters at best suffer from a fatal lack of imagination. Despite his single more important observation that polities where few people own guns don’t retain their RKBA, very few people fight for something they have no stake in.

    Do you believe in the second amendment remedy for tyranny?

    We should note that Sebastian doesn’t, he views this as an entirely political fight where if he loses he’ll turn in his guns; maybe that makes him sanguine about Red Flag laws which are almost certainly coming to his home state?? He’s not only explicitly proclaimed that, but was so uncomfortable with the hard line that he suffered significant brand damage to move his blog from “Snowflakes in Hell” to “Shall Not Be Questioned” (quoting the relevant section in his state’s constitution). That he’s so totally in the political game is why I and I think many of us deplorable “hardliners” frequent his blog, it’s an important viewpoint and segment of the RKBA movement, but it sure gets annoying when he attacks us without provocation. But clarifying.

  2. On April 24, 2019 at 8:44 am, Frank Clarke said:

    “I am of the opinion that NRA taking a no-compromise, hardline stance will ultimately result in its irrelevance.”

    What’s to lose? They’re irrelevant now.

  3. On April 24, 2019 at 2:37 pm, Chris said:

    So which pro-2A organizations are worthy of support? NRA may impolde, for good or bad. SAF seems to be involved in a lot of the legal challenges, but also seems to have certain aspects of a cult of personality (or the beginnings of a dynasty). Which do any good?

  4. On April 24, 2019 at 6:54 pm, Miles said:

    You blog. Your rules. Your time.
    But I believe that when a man has a personal/professional problem they take it to the source instead of name calling or submitting elsewhere posts filled with calumny.

    For the record, when “H” pulled out the ‘race card’ over a passing remark made years ago by Sebastian that people in 1985 were more racist than today, and then using it to be personally offended (BTW that’s a proggie tactic) so he could use it a a vehicle to rant more, it makes me consider is just who is promoting divisiveness?

  5. On April 24, 2019 at 7:24 pm, H said:

    Miles, I find it fascinating that you are reading the comments to Sebastian’s blog entry, even posting the same complaint over there, while claiming here that I didn’t make these points directly to him there, and I’ll add not for the first or second time.

    When someone puts out a public call to, well, inaction on our part, the discussion doesn’t stay hermetically sealed on the original forum, and pointing out why this person is attacking us is very germane, it’s hardly out of the blue. He doesn’t have our best interests in mind, although he does give us the courtesy of being able to defend them in the verbal and physical worlds.

  6. On April 24, 2019 at 8:19 pm, Herschel Smith said:


    A few words about comments. I don’t know what he is talking about, and I don’t know what you’re talking about. Nor do I have the time to learn.

    Comments are something that you cannot understand unless you have a blog and deal with them yourself. I’m not making excuses, I’m conveying reality. It is what it is, and I don’t apologize.

    I have going on 25,000 comments. I cannot moderate them all, I cannot read them all. I get paid exactly zero (0) dollars for doing this. In fact, it costs me money out-of-pocket in host fees for the web site. At one time I used Disqus, but got a lot of user complaints, and for good reason. I actually caught Disqus shadow-banning one of my commenters, where I could see the comment while logged in as administrator, but not at other times. They left it there for me to see, but no readers (in a ploy to hide from me, the blog owner, what they did). And I couldn’t re-approve the comment. Disqus had total control. So I jettisoned them and returned to the current protocol.

    I moderate comments for new users, then after that it’s pretty much up to them to post sensible comments. I have a few rules, like if I see a fight between readers I’ll normally only let it go on so long before I stop it.

    [EDIT]: Correction, 31,000 comments.

  7. On April 24, 2019 at 8:44 pm, Fred said:

    Sebastian and the rest of the NRA are gun controllers. Period. The end.

  8. On April 25, 2019 at 7:17 am, Longbow said:

    Can the NRA be reformed? Sure it can. The Board can fire ALL of the executive leadership and take control of the Organization.

    Will that happen? I doubt it.

  9. On April 25, 2019 at 9:19 am, H said:

    Longbow: the board was handpicked by the Winning Team … but now that leadership and their own behavior have put its members in civil and criminal jeopardy. Let’s suppose New York state indicts the members of the Audit Committee that back dated signoffs. Anything would be possible after that, especially since it’s likely one or more of them would take a plea bargain for cooperation with the prosecution.

    Indictment of one or more of the Winning Team could and should also have an outsized response from the board. We could also see a lot of members resigning, which depending on the bylaws could reduce the number needed to make real changes.

  10. On April 25, 2019 at 10:25 am, Fred said:

    Nobody is changing anything. The NRA is a fund raising arm the Republican Party. It is NOT a pro gun civil rights organization.

  11. On April 25, 2019 at 8:11 pm, Gryphon said:

    The NRA began as a Gun Safety/Marksmanship Training Group, which Endorsed Firearms Ownership for Hunting an Target Shooting. That is why the Organization “Never Met a Gun Control Bill it didn’t Like” and was Way Too Late to the Party in Defending the Right to Own Arms for Self-Defense, the Root of the Second Amendment Control on Government regulation pf Arms.
    And Fred is Correct, the Republican Party sees the NRA and its membership as a Cash Cow and (usually) Assured Votes.

  12. On April 26, 2019 at 9:38 am, John said:

    After considering what I believe gun rights in America would look like today
    without over a century of NRA activity I must say I believe you are wrong.
    Over the years the Organization has done much more good than harm.

  13. On April 26, 2019 at 10:17 am, Fred said:

    Well John, I’m not willing to trade my duties unto Holy God and those itinerant rights for an on balance compromise with the devil. The duty to defense is Revealed Law, Natural Law, and evident in nature prima facie. It’s not a political compromise.

  14. On April 26, 2019 at 11:10 am, John said:

    I honor your ironclad principles but a lot of hard knock reality has tempered mine somewhat.

  15. On April 26, 2019 at 1:11 pm, H said:

    My goodness, it didn’t take “Sebastian” very long to remind me why I stopped contributing to his blog back when he implicitly labeled me and mine as racists. We’ve been arguing about the size of the “hardliner” faction, he can’t come up with any data I think is solid (Gallup polling for example), but he’s very certain the number is very small, he guesstimates ~100,000 (I hadn’t laid down any numbers but I think there’s likely to be a few million at minimum).

    So in frustration I assume he laid down the “you’re a hypocrite for voting for Trump” card…. Bleah, it’s very obnoxious he’s got such good political insights, has for example of all the sources I follow sounded the siren about Bloomberg the loudest.

  16. On April 26, 2019 at 2:29 pm, Herschel Smith said:


    Okay then. Here’s a challenge problem for you. Give me examples of what the NRA has done for you.

  17. On April 26, 2019 at 2:53 pm, Fred said:

    John, there is a divergence then as I’ve become more ‘ironclad’ as time has gone by. That’s how I’ve been tempered. Respectfully, You’ve misused the word tempered related to the way it’s used in the Bible. It’s not a softening or an acceptance of a reality, it’s a hardening of belief on right and wrong, good and evil, God’s law and sin. A man is tempered and the dross is removed, a rather unpleasant experience if we resist or misapprehend God’s purposes.

    The devil asked Eve if God had really said not to eat of the tree in the midst of the Garden? To which she thought; well it sure looks yummy. That’s what he does, that’s how he gets you to acquiesce a little at a time. So when asked, directly or indirectly, if the Covenantal agreement by which we live really says; shall not be infringed, the only right answer is: YES. The thought of that oh so tasty reasonable compromise is the subtlety of the serpent. The devil isn’t even clever if we know God’s Law.

    Sabastian is either an agent of the devil or a teat suckling milk taker. (A casual survey of the American Church would indicate some considerable overlap here so it’s often hard to tell.) A nation of the Godless and of teat suckling milk eaters will not only go the camps, they’ll build and man them while rounding up their neighbors. I will die with my guns and it’s up to the enemies of God, of which Sabastian is one, if that’s at a ripe old age or something more dramatic.

  18. On April 26, 2019 at 10:19 pm, Miles said:

    H, I consider what you’re doing as divisive.

    You go pulling put the “racist” card like a leftist progressive uses it and then wonder why you get called to task for it?
    A comment made in passing 6 Years Ago as a “general garment” and you claiming it’s cut to fit you today is past suspicious ‘sir’.
    As I see it, that’s a tactic used to pick a fight for no other purpose than to pick a fight.

    I have no idea if you have a blog of your own, but if you did, I would go there to deal with you.
    You can come over to milesfortis anytime you want.

    The first point was a comment about this post about a beef with Sebastian. Herschel made comment about it here and and not there.

    I have a problem with someone, I go to the source.

  19. On April 27, 2019 at 6:24 am, H said:

    Miles: And again I repeat/restate, when someone attacks me and for example Herschel, as “Sebastian” has consistently done for years, in his latest posting we’re labeled “religious zealots”, that doesn’t stay hermetically sealed in his forum. Else we wouldn’t even be discussing his previous blog entry here on The Captain’s Journal where in the comments there he goes so far as to say he’d rather have the NRA die that reform if that results in the “hardliners” gaining control of it.

    Divisive for calling out someone’s divisiveness on their blog as you demand, as well as others’ like Herschel’s? So be it if that’s the only way you can see it, you can imagine how much I care about your standards of decorum in these dark times. Failure to be sufficiently “divisive” has resulted in a sclerotic and vulnerable NRA, and an increasingly public fight now inside the Winning Team, with LaPierre making public a letter claiming extortion after being asked to step down.

  20. On April 27, 2019 at 11:18 am, H said:

    Forgive me for “not going to the source”, not having phone numbers for these guys, but some of what’s going on between Wayne LaPierre and Oliver North just became clear. LaPierre complained in an open letter that North tried to blackmail him. And that:

    Last year [North] entered an employment agreement with [AckMac (AM)] that pays him millions of dollars annually, supposedly in exchange for hosting an NRATV documentary series, “American Heroes.” AN bargained to deliver twelve feature-length episodes of American Heroes within the series’ first year. That period expires next month, and AM has delivered only three episodes (the latest is a mere 11 minutes in length).

    And claims AckMac is trying to oust him because LaPierre is asking for an accounting of this. While we should be very careful about anything he says, the new detail reported this morning helps explain this. North announced he isn’t “seeking” another term as President, they’re for one year and it’ll end Monday, which I note is when the official private Board meeting is held.

    I’m guessing getting rid of LaPierre was part of the path North needed to keep his position. You could interpret this as a necessary part of reforming the NRA, except for the claims made by many that AckMac is paying North with NRA money, and getting rid of AckMac is just as important.

RSS feed for comments on this post. TrackBack URL

Leave a comment

You are currently reading "The NRA Needs A Reform Movement?", entry #21069 on The Captain's Journal.

This article is filed under the category(s) Gun Control,National Rifle Association and was published April 23rd, 2019 by Herschel Smith.

If you're interested in what else the The Captain's Journal has to say, you might try thumbing through the archives and visiting the main index, or; perhaps you would like to learn more about TCJ.

26th MEU (10)
Abu Muqawama (12)
ACOG (2)
ACOGs (1)
Afghan National Army (36)
Afghan National Police (17)
Afghanistan (704)
Afghanistan SOFA (4)
Agriculture in COIN (3)
AGW (1)
Air Force (38)
Air Power (9)
al Qaeda (83)
Ali al-Sistani (1)
America (21)
Ammunition (187)
Animals (153)
Ansar al Sunna (15)
Anthropology (3)
Antonin Scalia (1)
AR-15s (328)
Arghandab River Valley (1)
Arlington Cemetery (2)
Army (81)
Assassinations (2)
Assault Weapon Ban (27)
Australian Army (7)
Azerbaijan (4)
Backpacking (2)
Badr Organization (8)
Baitullah Mehsud (21)
Basra (17)
BATFE (132)
Battle of Bari Alai (2)
Battle of Wanat (18)
Battle Space Weight (3)
Bin Laden (7)
Blogroll (3)
Blogs (24)
Body Armor (23)
Books (3)
Border War (16)
Brady Campaign (1)
Britain (38)
British Army (35)
Camping (4)
Canada (13)
Castle Doctrine (1)
Caucasus (6)
Center For a New American Security (8)
Charity (3)
China (15)
Christmas (13)
CIA (29)
Civilian National Security Force (3)
Col. Gian Gentile (9)
Combat Outposts (3)
Combat Video (2)
Concerned Citizens (6)
Constabulary Actions (3)
Coolness Factor (3)
COP Keating (4)
Corruption in COIN (4)
Council on Foreign Relations (1)
Counterinsurgency (218)
DADT (2)
David Rohde (1)
Defense Contractors (2)
Department of Defense (196)
Department of Homeland Security (26)
Disaster Preparedness (4)
Distributed Operations (5)
Dogs (12)
Donald Trump (27)
Drone Campaign (3)
EFV (3)
Egypt (12)
El Salvador (1)
Embassy Security (1)
Enemy Spotters (1)
Expeditionary Warfare (17)
F-22 (2)
F-35 (1)
Fallujah (17)
Far East (3)
Fathers and Sons (2)
Favorite (1)
Fazlullah (3)
FBI (32)
Featured (187)
Federal Firearms Laws (18)
Financing the Taliban (2)
Firearms (1,531)
Football (1)
Force Projection (35)
Force Protection (4)
Force Transformation (1)
Foreign Policy (27)
Fukushima Reactor Accident (6)
Ganjgal (1)
Garmsir (1)
general (15)
General Amos (1)
General James Mattis (1)
General McChrystal (44)
General McKiernan (6)
General Rodriguez (3)
General Suleimani (9)
Georgia (19)
Google (1)
Gulbuddin Hekmatyar (1)
Gun Control (1,408)
Guns (2,035)
Guns In National Parks (3)
Haditha Roundup (10)
Haiti (2)
Haqqani Network (9)
Hate Mail (8)
Hekmatyar (1)
Heroism (4)
Hezbollah (12)
High Capacity Magazines (16)
High Value Targets (9)
Homecoming (1)
Homeland Security (2)
Horses (1)
Humor (43)
ICOS (1)
IEDs (7)
Immigration (95)
India (10)
Infantry (4)
Information Warfare (2)
Infrastructure (3)
Intelligence (23)
Intelligence Bulletin (6)
Iran (171)
Iraq (379)
Iraq SOFA (23)
Islamic Facism (64)
Islamists (95)
Israel (18)
Jaish al Mahdi (21)
Jalalabad (1)
Japan (3)
Jihadists (80)
John Nagl (5)
Joint Intelligence Centers (1)
JRTN (1)
Kabul (1)
Kajaki Dam (1)
Kamdesh (9)
Kandahar (12)
Karachi (7)
Kashmir (2)
Khost Province (1)
Khyber (11)
Knife Blogging (5)
Korea (4)
Korengal Valley (3)
Kunar Province (20)
Kurdistan (3)
Language in COIN (5)
Language in Statecraft (1)
Language Interpreters (2)
Lashkar-e-Taiba (2)
Law Enforcement (4)
Lawfare (7)
Leadership (6)
Lebanon (6)
Leon Panetta (2)
Let Them Fight (2)
Libya (14)
Lines of Effort (3)
Littoral Combat (8)
Logistics (50)
Long Guns (1)
Lt. Col. Allen West (2)
Marine Corps (273)
Marines in Bakwa (1)
Marines in Helmand (67)
Marjah (4)
Media (62)
Medical (140)
Memorial Day (6)
Mexican Cartels (38)
Mexico (56)
Michael Yon (6)
Micromanaging the Military (7)
Middle East (1)
Military Blogging (26)
Military Contractors (4)
Military Equipment (24)
Militia (6)
Mitt Romney (3)
Monetary Policy (1)
Moqtada al Sadr (2)
Mosul (4)
Mountains (25)
MRAPs (1)
Mullah Baradar (1)
Mullah Fazlullah (1)
Mullah Omar (3)
Musa Qala (4)
Music (24)
Muslim Brotherhood (6)
Nation Building (2)
National Internet IDs (1)
National Rifle Association (83)
NATO (15)
Navy (24)
Navy Corpsman (1)
NCOs (3)
News (1)
NGOs (2)
Nicholas Schmidle (2)
Now Zad (19)
NSA (3)
NSA James L. Jones (6)
Nuclear (61)
Nuristan (8)
Obama Administration (221)
Offshore Balancing (1)
Operation Alljah (7)
Operation Khanjar (14)
Ossetia (7)
Pakistan (165)
Paktya Province (1)
Palestine (5)
Patriotism (7)
Patrolling (1)
Pech River Valley (11)
Personal (70)
Petraeus (14)
Pictures (1)
Piracy (13)
Pistol (2)
Pizzagate (21)
Police (573)
Police in COIN (3)
Policy (15)
Politics (952)
Poppy (2)
PPEs (1)
Prisons in Counterinsurgency (12)
Project Gunrunner (20)
PRTs (1)
Qatar (1)
Quadrennial Defense Review (2)
Quds Force (13)
Quetta Shura (1)
RAND (3)
Recommended Reading (14)
Refueling Tanker (1)
Religion (311)
Religion and Insurgency (19)
Reuters (1)
Rick Perry (4)
Rifles (1)
Roads (4)
Rolling Stone (1)
Ron Paul (1)
ROTC (1)
Rules of Engagement (75)
Rumsfeld (1)
Russia (35)
Sabbatical (1)
Sangin (1)
Saqlawiyah (1)
Satellite Patrols (2)
Saudi Arabia (4)
Scenes from Iraq (1)
Second Amendment (479)
Second Amendment Quick Hits (2)
Secretary Gates (9)
Sharia Law (3)
Shura Ittehad-ul-Mujahiden (1)
SIIC (2)
Sirajuddin Haqqani (1)
Small Wars (72)
Snipers (9)
Sniveling Lackeys (2)
Soft Power (4)
Somalia (8)
Sons of Afghanistan (1)
Sons of Iraq (2)
Special Forces (28)
Squad Rushes (1)
State Department (23)
Statistics (1)
Sunni Insurgency (10)
Support to Infantry Ratio (1)
Supreme Court (34)
Survival (77)
SWAT Raids (56)
Syria (38)
Tactical Drills (2)
Tactical Gear (7)
Taliban (168)
Taliban Massing of Forces (4)
Tarmiyah (1)
TBI (1)
Technology (18)
Tehrik-i-Taliban (78)
Terrain in Combat (1)
Terrorism (95)
Thanksgiving (12)
The Anbar Narrative (23)
The Art of War (5)
The Fallen (1)
The Long War (20)
The Surge (3)
The Wounded (13)
Thomas Barnett (1)
Transnational Insurgencies (5)
Tribes (5)
TSA (24)
TSA Ineptitude (13)
TTPs (4)
U.S. Border Patrol (5)
U.S. Border Security (15)
U.S. Sovereignty (19)
UAVs (2)
UBL (4)
Ukraine (9)
Uncategorized (64)
Universal Background Check (3)
Unrestricted Warfare (4)
USS Iwo Jima (2)
USS San Antonio (1)
Uzbekistan (1)
V-22 Osprey (4)
Veterans (3)
Vietnam (1)
War & Warfare (338)
War & Warfare (40)
War Movies (4)
War Reporting (21)
Wardak Province (1)
Warriors (6)
Waziristan (1)
Weapons and Tactics (75)
West Point (1)
Winter Operations (1)
Women in Combat (21)
WTF? (1)
Yemen (1)

May 2022
April 2022
March 2022
February 2022
January 2022
December 2021
November 2021
October 2021
September 2021
August 2021
July 2021
June 2021
May 2021
April 2021
March 2021
February 2021
January 2021
December 2020
November 2020
October 2020
September 2020
August 2020
July 2020
June 2020
May 2020
April 2020
March 2020
February 2020
January 2020
December 2019
November 2019
October 2019
September 2019
August 2019
July 2019
June 2019
May 2019
April 2019
March 2019
February 2019
January 2019
December 2018
November 2018
October 2018
September 2018
August 2018
July 2018
June 2018
May 2018
April 2018
March 2018
February 2018
January 2018
December 2017
November 2017
October 2017
September 2017
August 2017
July 2017
June 2017
May 2017
April 2017
March 2017
February 2017
January 2017
December 2016
November 2016
October 2016
September 2016
August 2016
July 2016
June 2016
May 2016
April 2016
March 2016
February 2016
January 2016
December 2015
November 2015
October 2015
September 2015
August 2015
July 2015
June 2015
May 2015
April 2015
March 2015
February 2015
January 2015
December 2014
November 2014
October 2014
September 2014
August 2014
July 2014
June 2014
May 2014
April 2014
March 2014
February 2014
January 2014
December 2013
November 2013
October 2013
September 2013
August 2013
July 2013
June 2013
May 2013
April 2013
March 2013
February 2013
January 2013
December 2012
November 2012
October 2012
September 2012
August 2012
July 2012
June 2012
May 2012
April 2012
March 2012
February 2012
January 2012
December 2011
November 2011
October 2011
September 2011
August 2011
July 2011
June 2011
May 2011
April 2011
March 2011
February 2011
January 2011
December 2010
November 2010
October 2010
September 2010
August 2010
July 2010
June 2010
May 2010
April 2010
March 2010
February 2010
January 2010
December 2009
November 2009
October 2009
September 2009
August 2009
July 2009
June 2009
May 2009
April 2009
March 2009
February 2009
January 2009
December 2008
November 2008
October 2008
September 2008
August 2008
July 2008
June 2008
May 2008
April 2008
March 2008
February 2008
January 2008
December 2007
November 2007
October 2007
September 2007
August 2007
July 2007
June 2007
May 2007
April 2007
March 2007
February 2007
January 2007
December 2006
November 2006
October 2006
September 2006
August 2006
July 2006
June 2006
May 2006

about · archives · contact · register

Copyright © 2006-2022 Captain's Journal. All rights reserved.