Chloroquine is a potent inhibitor of SARS coronavirus infection and spread

BY Herschel Smith
9 months, 3 weeks ago

From a reader, data on what we already knew.

We report, however, that chloroquine has strong antiviral effects on SARS-CoV infection of primate cells. These inhibitory effects are observed when the cells are treated with the drug either before or after exposure to the virus, suggesting both prophylactic and therapeutic advantage. In addition to the well-known functions of chloroquine such as elevations of endosomal pH, the drug appears to interfere with terminal glycosylation of the cellular receptor, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. This may negatively influence the virus-receptor binding and abrogate the infection, with further ramifications by the elevation of vesicular pH, resulting in the inhibition of infection and spread of SARS CoV at clinically admissible concentrations.

Chloroquine is effective in preventing the spread of SARS CoV in cell culture. Favorable inhibition of virus spread was observed when the cells were either treated with chloroquine prior to or after SARS CoV infection. In addition, the indirect immunofluorescence assay described herein represents a simple and rapid method for screening SARS-CoV antiviral compounds.

[ … ]

In order to investigate the antiviral properties of chloroquine on SARS-CoV after the initiation of infection, Vero E6 cells were infected with the virus and fresh medium supplemented with various concentrations of chloroquine was added immediately after virus adsorption. Infected cells were incubated for an additional 16–18 h, after which the presence of virus antigens was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. When chloroquine was added after the initiation of infection, there was a dramatic dose-dependant decrease in the number of virus antigen-positive cells (Fig. 2A). As little as 0.1–1 μM chloroquine reduced the infection by 50% and up to 90–94% inhibition was observed with 33–100 μM concentrations.  At concentrations of chloroquine in excess of 1 μM, only a small number of individual cells were initially infected, and the spread of the infection to adjacent cells was all but eliminated. A half-maximal inhibitory effect was estimated to occur at 4.4 ± 1.0 μM chloroquine. These data clearly show that addition of chloroquine can effectively reduce the establishment of infection and spread of SARS-CoV if the drug is added immediately following virus adsorption.

[ … ]

We have identified chloroquine as an effective antiviral agent for SARS-CoV in cell culture conditions, as evidenced by its inhibitory effect when the drug was added prior to infection or after the initiation and establishment of infection. The fact that chloroquine exerts an antiviral effect during pre- and post-infection conditions suggest that it is likely to have both prophylactic and therapeutic advantages. Recently, Keyaerts et al. [21] reported the antiviral properties of chloroquine and identified that the drug affects SARS-CoV replication in cell culture, as evidenced by quantitative RT-PCR. Taken together with the findings of Keyaerts et al. [21], our analysis provides further evidence that chloroquine is effective against SARS-CoV Frankfurt and Urbani strains. We have provided evidence that chloroquine is effective in preventing SARS-CoV infection in cell culture if the drug is added to the cells 24 h prior to infection. In addition, chloroquine was significantly effective even when the drug was added 3–5 h after infection, suggesting an antiviral effect even after the establishment of infection. Since similar results were obtained by NH4Cl treatment of Vero E6 cells, the underlying mechanism(s) of action of these drugs might be similar.

[ … ]

Chloroquine, a relatively safe, effective and cheap drug used for treating many human diseases including malaria, amoebiosis and human immunodeficiency virus is effective in inhibiting the infection and spread of SARS CoV in cell culture. The fact that the drug has significant inhibitory antiviral effect when the susceptible cells were treated either prior to or after infection suggests a possible prophylactic and therapeutic use.

This information isn’t surprising because the NIH – Anthony Fauci’s organizationtold us so back in 2005 when it was convenient and before they knew they were going to have to roll this out in 2019 for other purposes (and after gain of function research had been conducted at UNC and Harvard that had to be covered up).

You know, before Trump talked about HCQ in a press conference, which of course meant that the bureaucratic state had to deny it every day using the legacy media as their tools.

The blood of many thousands of deaths is on the hands of the bureaucratic state, but they don’t appear to care.  A few eggs have to be broken to make the collectivist omelette.

The recipe for success was always, and continues to be: HCQ, Zinc, Vitamin D and Z-Pak.  We knew this 10 months ago.  But most doctors are still prevented from administering HCQ due to the risk of losing their malpractice insurance and/or their corporate jobs.


Comments

  1. On December 27, 2020 at 6:24 pm, 41mag said:

    QUICK

    Someone tell Arsop at his racounter report!

  2. On December 28, 2020 at 2:07 pm, Ned2 said:

    I think Arsop is being paid by someone.
    He does CDC better than CDC does CDC.

    I’m banned from his site for having the impertinence to question him. No rational discourse over there.

  3. On December 28, 2020 at 6:51 pm, ApoloDoc said:

    Old news! And, for the record, I am uncertain if the Zithromax is actually needed or not. EVERYBODY needs to get their Vit D levels up & supplement with Zn. The key is that Plaquenil (HCQ) needs to be started EARLY! Also, for those who get infected, there was some work being done months ago using melatonin and also ivermectin (yep, dog heart worm meds) but I don’t recall final data being reported.

    Organized medicine has been so deeply corrupted, I simply don’t trust much research, ESPECIALLY when it’s something that impacts Big Pharma profits.

  4. On December 28, 2020 at 8:09 pm, Herschel Smith said:

    @Doc,m

    Yes, Ivermectin. You might have missed it, but I made a post where I recalled sitting in my backyard one afternoon and surmised that Ivermectin might be effective. As God is my witness.

    I decided that folks would think I’m crazy (even though not only is it used to treat mites in dogs, but Scabies in humans), so I just shut up about it.

    I linked a recent study (I think from Australia) where they had great success with Ivermectin. I’ll check and see, and if not, link it.

  5. On December 28, 2020 at 8:14 pm, Fred said:

    I remember Herschel, and there have been a few sightings by me of articles about using Ivermectin over the last several days. I noted here at the time that I’ve taken Ivermectin off label and experienced zero side effects. It’s pricier than HCQ but $120 bucks is better than dying.

  6. On December 31, 2020 at 8:31 pm, Hudson H Luce said:

    Ivermectin is used outside the US with great success:
    1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kk7KNBak-i0 – “Ivermectin has received a significant amount of attention as a potential early treatment of COVID-19. Dr. Seheult discusses a word of caution about in vitro dosages and retrospective observational studies
    (This video was recorded July 15, 2020).”

    2. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2MlliaLC0A – Speaker: Pierre Kory (Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance-USA) Chair: Puya Dehgani-Mobaraki (Italy) President & Associate of the Frontline Covid-19 Critical Care Alliance Link to the pre-print paper by Pierre Kory – https://osf.io/wx3zn/

    3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXh1yflndVE – Dr. Pierre Kory Talks Covid-19, Ivermectin and the FLCCC: Dr. Pierre Kory, Associate Professor of Medicine at St. Luke’s Aurora Medical Center is a Pulmonologist and ICU specialist dedicated completely to the COVID-19 patient. He has been a shining light in what can be a dark and murky time in his intense commitment to treat and ensure patients are safe from this pandemic. He was educated at the St. George University Medical School at and has been board certified by the American Board of Internal Medicine in Internal Medicine, Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine.

    4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jrrWFjIilEU – in general, good to listen to.

    Of course, FDA opposes ivermectin, at five cents per dose and out of patent, with the great majority of patients cured in three days, it’s not going to make anyone a lot of money.

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